I am writing C for an MPC 555 board and need to figure out how to allocate dynamic memory without using malloc.
Write your own. Since your allocator will probably be specialized to a few types of objects, I recommend the Quick Fit scheme developed by Bill Wulf and Charles Weinstock. (I have not been able to find a free copy of this paper, but many people have access to the ACM digital library.) The paper is short, easy to read, and well suited to your problem.
If you turn out to need a more general allocator, the best guide I have found on the topic of programming on machines with fixed memory is Donald Knuth's book The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 1. If you want examples, you can find good ones in Don's epic book-length treatment of the source code of TeX, TeX: The Program.
Finally, the undergraduate textbook by Bryant and O'Hallaron is rather expensive, but it goes through the implementation of
malloc in excruciating detail.