Exceptional C++

Herb Sutter

Mentioned 16

The puzzles and problems in Exceptional C++ not only entertain, they will help you hone your skills to become the sharpest C++ programmer you can be. Many of these problems are culled from the famous Guru of the Week feature of the Internet newsgroup comp.lang.c++, moderated, expanded and updated to conform to the official ISO/ANSI C++ Standard. Try your skills against the C++ masters and come away with the insight and experience to create more efficient, effective, robust, and portable C++ code.

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Mentioned in questions and answers.

This question attempts to collect the few pearls among the dozens of bad C++ books that are published every year.

Unlike many other programming languages, which are often picked up on the go from tutorials found on the Internet, few are able to quickly pick up C++ without studying a well-written C++ book. It is way too big and complex for doing this. In fact, it is so big and complex, that there are very many very bad C++ books out there. And we are not talking about bad style, but things like sporting glaringly obvious factual errors and promoting abysmally bad programming styles.

Please edit the accepted answer to provide quality books and an approximate skill level — preferably after discussing your addition in the C++ chat room. (The regulars might mercilessly undo your work if they disagree with a recommendation.) Add a short blurb/description about each book that you have personally read/benefited from. Feel free to debate quality, headings, etc. Books that meet the criteria will be added to the list. Books that have reviews by the Association of C and C++ Users (ACCU) have links to the review.

Note: FAQs and other resources can be found in the C++ tag info and under . There is also a similar post for C: The Definitive C Book Guide and List


Introductory, no previous programming experience

  • Programming: Principles and Practice Using C++ (Bjarne Stroustrup) (updated for C++11/C++14) An introduction to programming using C++ by the creator of the language. A good read, that assumes no previous programming experience, but is not only for beginners.

Introductory, with previous programming experience

  • C++ Primer * (Stanley Lippman, Josée Lajoie, and Barbara E. Moo) (updated for C++11) Coming at 1k pages, this is a very thorough introduction into C++ that covers just about everything in the language in a very accessible format and in great detail. The fifth edition (released August 16, 2012) covers C++11. [Review]

  • A Tour of C++ (Bjarne Stroustrup) (EBOOK) The “tour” is a quick (about 180 pages and 14 chapters) tutorial overview of all of standard C++ (language and standard library, and using C++11) at a moderately high level for people who already know C++ or at least are experienced programmers. This book is an extended version of the material that constitutes Chapters 2-5 of The C++ Programming Language, 4th edition.

  • Accelerated C++ (Andrew Koenig and Barbara Moo) This basically covers the same ground as the C++ Primer, but does so on a fourth of its space. This is largely because it does not attempt to be an introduction to programming, but an introduction to C++ for people who've previously programmed in some other language. It has a steeper learning curve, but, for those who can cope with this, it is a very compact introduction into the language. (Historically, it broke new ground by being the first beginner's book to use a modern approach at teaching the language.) [Review]

  • Thinking in C++ (Bruce Eckel) Two volumes; is a tutorial style free set of intro level books. Downloads: vol 1, vol 2. Unfortunately they’re marred by a number of trivial errors (e.g. maintaining that temporaries are automatically const), with no official errata list. A partial 3rd party errata list is available at (http://www.computersciencelab.com/Eckel.htm), but it’s apparently not maintained.

* Not to be confused with C++ Primer Plus (Stephen Prata), with a significantly less favorable review.

Best practices

  • Effective C++ (Scott Meyers) This was written with the aim of being the best second book C++ programmers should read, and it succeeded. Earlier editions were aimed at programmers coming from C, the third edition changes this and targets programmers coming from languages like Java. It presents ~50 easy-to-remember rules of thumb along with their rationale in a very accessible (and enjoyable) style. For C++11 and C++14 the examples and a few issues are outdated and Effective Modern C++ should be preferred. [Review]

  • Effective Modern C++ (Scott Meyers) This is basically the new version of Effective C++, aimed at C++ programmers making the transition from C++03 to C++11 and C++14.

  • Effective STL (Scott Meyers) This aims to do the same to the part of the standard library coming from the STL what Effective C++ did to the language as a whole: It presents rules of thumb along with their rationale. [Review]


  • More Effective C++ (Scott Meyers) Even more rules of thumb than Effective C++. Not as important as the ones in the first book, but still good to know.

  • Exceptional C++ (Herb Sutter) Presented as a set of puzzles, this has one of the best and thorough discussions of the proper resource management and exception safety in C++ through Resource Acquisition is Initialization (RAII) in addition to in-depth coverage of a variety of other topics including the pimpl idiom, name lookup, good class design, and the C++ memory model. [Review]

  • More Exceptional C++ (Herb Sutter) Covers additional exception safety topics not covered in Exceptional C++, in addition to discussion of effective object oriented programming in C++ and correct use of the STL. [Review]

  • Exceptional C++ Style (Herb Sutter) Discusses generic programming, optimization, and resource management; this book also has an excellent exposition of how to write modular code in C++ by using nonmember functions and the single responsibility principle. [Review]

  • C++ Coding Standards (Herb Sutter and Andrei Alexandrescu) “Coding standards” here doesn't mean “how many spaces should I indent my code?” This book contains 101 best practices, idioms, and common pitfalls that can help you to write correct, understandable, and efficient C++ code. [Review]

  • C++ Templates: The Complete Guide (David Vandevoorde and Nicolai M. Josuttis) This is the book about templates as they existed before C++11. It covers everything from the very basics to some of the most advanced template metaprogramming and explains every detail of how templates work (both conceptually and at how they are implemented) and discusses many common pitfalls. Has excellent summaries of the One Definition Rule (ODR) and overload resolution in the appendices. A second edition is scheduled for 2017. [Review]


  • Modern C++ Design (Andrei Alexandrescu) A groundbreaking book on advanced generic programming techniques. Introduces policy-based design, type lists, and fundamental generic programming idioms then explains how many useful design patterns (including small object allocators, functors, factories, visitors, and multimethods) can be implemented efficiently, modularly, and cleanly using generic programming. [Review]

  • C++ Template Metaprogramming (David Abrahams and Aleksey Gurtovoy)

  • C++ Concurrency In Action (Anthony Williams) A book covering C++11 concurrency support including the thread library, the atomics library, the C++ memory model, locks and mutexes, as well as issues of designing and debugging multithreaded applications.

  • Advanced C++ Metaprogramming (Davide Di Gennaro) A pre-C++11 manual of TMP techniques, focused more on practice than theory. There are a ton of snippets in this book, some of which are made obsolete by typetraits, but the techniques, are nonetheless useful to know. If you can put up with the quirky formatting/editing, it is easier to read than Alexandrescu, and arguably, more rewarding. For more experienced developers, there is a good chance that you may pick up something about a dark corner of C++ (a quirk) that usually only comes about through extensive experience.

Reference Style - All Levels

  • The C++ Programming Language (Bjarne Stroustrup) (updated for C++11) The classic introduction to C++ by its creator. Written to parallel the classic K&R, this indeed reads very much alike it and covers just about everything from the core language to the standard library, to programming paradigms to the language's philosophy. [Review]

  • C++ Standard Library Tutorial and Reference (Nicolai Josuttis) (updated for C++11) The introduction and reference for the C++ Standard Library. The second edition (released on April 9, 2012) covers C++11. [Review]

  • The C++ IO Streams and Locales (Angelika Langer and Klaus Kreft) There's very little to say about this book except that, if you want to know anything about streams and locales, then this is the one place to find definitive answers. [Review]

C++11/14 References:

  • The C++ Standard (INCITS/ISO/IEC 14882-2011) This, of course, is the final arbiter of all that is or isn't C++. Be aware, however, that it is intended purely as a reference for experienced users willing to devote considerable time and effort to its understanding. As usual, the first release was quite expensive ($300+ US), but it has now been released in electronic form for $60US.

  • The C++14 standard is available, but seemingly not in an economical form – directly from the ISO it costs 198 Swiss Francs (about $200 US). For most people, the final draft before standardization is more than adequate (and free). Many will prefer an even newer draft, documenting new features that are likely to be included in C++17.

  • Overview of the New C++ (C++11/14) (PDF only) (Scott Meyers) (updated for C++1y/C++14) These are the presentation materials (slides and some lecture notes) of a three-day training course offered by Scott Meyers, who's a highly respected author on C++. Even though the list of items is short, the quality is high.

  • The C++ Core Guidelines (C++11/14/17/…) (edited by Bjarne Stroustrup and Herb Sutter) is an evolving online document consisting of a set of guidelines for using modern C++ well. The guidelines are focused on relatively higher-level issues, such as interfaces, resource management, memory management and concurrency affecting application architecture and library design. The project was announced at CppCon'15 by Bjarne Stroustrup and others and welcomes contributions from the community. Most guidelines are supplemented with a rationale and examples as well as discussions of possible tool support. Many rules are designed specifically to be automatically checkable by static analysis tools.

  • The C++ Super-FAQ (Marshall Cline, Bjarne Stroustrup and others) is an effort by the Standard C++ Foundation to unify the C++ FAQs previously maintained individually by Marshall Cline and Bjarne Stroustrup and also incorporating new contributions. The items mostly address issues at an intermediate level and are often written with a humorous tone. Not all items might be fully up to date with the latest edition of the C++ standard yet.

  • cppreference.com (C++03/11/14/17/…) (initiated by Nate Kohl) is a wiki that summarizes the basic core-language features and has extensive documentation of the C++ standard library. The documentation is very precise but is easier to read than the official standard document and provides better navigation due to its wiki nature. The project documents all versions of the C++ standard and the site allows filtering the display for a specific version. The project was presented by Nate Kohl at CppCon'14.

Classics / Older

Note: Some information contained within these books may not be up-to-date or no longer considered best practice.

  • The Design and Evolution of C++ (Bjarne Stroustrup) If you want to know why the language is the way it is, this book is where you find answers. This covers everything before the standardization of C++.

  • Ruminations on C++ - (Andrew Koenig and Barbara Moo) [Review]

  • Advanced C++ Programming Styles and Idioms (James Coplien) A predecessor of the pattern movement, it describes many C++-specific “idioms”. It's certainly a very good book and might still be worth a read if you can spare the time, but quite old and not up-to-date with current C++.

  • Large Scale C++ Software Design (John Lakos) Lakos explains techniques to manage very big C++ software projects. Certainly a good read, if it only was up to date. It was written long before C++98, and misses on many features (e.g. namespaces) important for large scale projects. If you need to work in a big C++ software project, you might want to read it, although you need to take more than a grain of salt with it. The first volume of a new edition is expected in 2015.

  • Inside the C++ Object Model (Stanley Lippman) If you want to know how virtual member functions are commonly implemented and how base objects are commonly laid out in memory in a multi-inheritance scenario, and how all this affects performance, this is where you will find thorough discussions of such topics.

  • The Annotated C++ Reference Manual (Bjarne Stroustrup, Margaret A. Ellis) This book is quite outdated in the fact that it explores the 1989 C++ 2.0 version - Templates, exceptions, namespaces and new casts were not yet introduced. Saying that however this is book goes through the entire C++ standard of the time explaining the rationale, the possible implementations and features of the language. This is not a book not learn programming principles and patterns on C++, but to understand every aspect of the C++ language.

Coming from C++ to Java, the obvious unanswered question is why didn't Java include operator overloading?

Isn't Complex a, b, c; a = b + c; much simpler than Complex a, b, c; a=b.add(c);?

Is there a known reason for this, valid arguments for not allowing operator overloading? Is the reason arbitrary, or lost to time?

James Gosling likened designing Java to the following:

"There's this principle about moving, when you move from one apartment to another apartment. An interesting experiment is to pack up your apartment and put everything in boxes, then move into the next apartment and not unpack anything until you need it. So you're making your first meal, and you're pulling something out of a box. Then after a month or so you've used that to pretty much figure out what things in your life you actually need, and then you take the rest of the stuff -- forget how much you like it or how cool it is -- and you just throw it away. It's amazing how that simplifies your life, and you can use that principle in all kinds of design issues: not do things just because they're cool or just because they're interesting."

You can read the context of the quote here

Basically operator overloading is great for a class that models some kind of point, currency or complex number. But after that you start running out of examples fast.

Another factor was the abuse of the feature in C++ by developers overloading operators like '&&', '||', the cast operators and of course 'new'. The complexity resulting from combining this with pass by value and exceptions is well covered in the Exceptional C++ book.

I have a Phone interview coming up next with with a company which works in financial software industry. The interview is mainly going to be in C++ and problem solving and logic. Please tell me the method of preparation for this interview. I have started skimming through Thinking in C++ and brushing up the concepts. Is there any other way I can prepare?? Please help.


Thank you all everyone for the advice. I just want to add that I am currently fresh out of grad school and have no previous experience. So Can you suggest some type of questions that will be asked to new grads??

Read (or skim, depending on how much time you have to prepare) "Large-Scale C++ Software Design" by John Lakos. Chances are, you will need it.

Make sure you know your basic data structures and algorithms. You're more likely to be asked about that stuff than something higher up the food chain. Those are usually saved for the in-person interview.

Put another way: be solid with the fundamentals and solid with your C++ syntax. Also, knowledge of common libraries like STL and Boost couldn't hurt...but be sure you know what those libraries give you! In the end phone screens are there to cull out people who can't do the basics. Prove you can and you should move on to the next step. Good luck!

Here's some links of interview questions to check out:

Now, for completion's sake, some books:

I'd like to learn how to use RAII in c++. I think I know what it is, but have no idea how to implement it in my programs. A quick google search did not show any nice tutorials.

Does any one have any nice links to teach me RAII?

The reference that I personally have found most helpful on the topic of RAII is the book Exceptional C++ by Herb Sutter.

Many of the topics covered in that book are touched on in the Guru of the Week articles by Sutter. Those articles are available at http://gotw.ca/gotw/index.htm.

Item 13 of "Effective C+" is also pretty useful

I've got about 2/3 years C++ experience but I've spent most of my career doing Java. I'm about to go for an interview for a C++ programming role and I've been thinking about the best way to brush up my C++ to make sure I don't get caught out by any awkward questions. What would you recommend?

I have been learning C++ for three months now and in that time created a number of applications for my company. I consider myself fairly comfortable with C++ / MFC and STL, however I don't just want to be an OK programmer, I want to be a good programmer. I have a few books on best practices but I was wondering if anyone could suggest reading materials that helped them and any disciplines which should be encouraged?


You can check out the Boost library and a number of the books written about it. While this may not have been what you had in mind, IMO, the Boost libraries are examples of well-designed modern C++ libraries that use the features of the language in pretty much the way they should be used to create among the most effective solutions for their problem domain. Granted of course, there are bizarre libraries like preprocessor and MPL which make you wonder if you'll ever have any use for them, but they're all round quite good. From my own experience, exploring the library and its literature has given me insight into how C++ can be used effectively.

Boost Beyond the C++ Standard Library: An Introduction to Boost

For C++, Scott Meyers books are very good, and will help take you to the next level.

If you don't already have it C++ by Bjarne Stroustrup, 3rd Edition

3 months into c++ and you're already comfortable with it? Sheesh, I've been learning c# for over a year and have taken numerous Microsoft courses and I'm nowhere near comfortable with it.

That being said, you'll hear Code Complete tossed about as a very good book. I'm in the process of reading it now.

I lot of folks can suggest more modern, up-to-date books. But I still recommend The Annotated C++ Reference Manual by Margaret A. Ellis & Bjarne Stroustrup.

The ARM was published back in '90. It's become somewhat outdated with respect to templates. STL is (obviously) absent. (Though the website at sgi.com does a good job of covering STL!)

However, the ARM is dirt cheap (used). (Shipping will exceed the cost of the book.) Its signal-to-noise ratio remains off the scale. It's very good at digging into C++'s dirty areas, explaining what was done & why.

I still use it as a reference. I rank it up there with K&R.

Good blogs: Guru of the Week, and all the books by Herb Sutter. Those will give you quite a lot to chew already.

Modern C++ Design by Alexandrescu if you want to get a good feel for what you don't yet know, and probably don't want to know.

Code Kata's for practice!

As I see, nobody mentioned Bruce Eckel brilliant books "Thinking in C++". IMHO, it`s one of the best books to start your C++ development from. From my point of view, first volume is more helpful that the second, but both of them worth reading.

Does having several levels of base classes slow down a class? A derives B derives C derives D derives F derives G, ...

Does multiple inheritance slow down a class?

[Deep inheritance hierarchies] greatly increases the maintenance burden by adding unnecessary complexity, forcing users to learn the interfaces of many classes even when all they want to do is use a specific derived class. It can also have an impact on memory use and program performance by adding unnecessary vtables and indirection to classes that do not really need them. If you find yourself frequently creating deep inheritance hierarchies, you should review your design style to see if you've picked up this bad habit. Deep hierarchies are rarely needed and almost never good. And if you don't believe that but think that "OO just isn't OO without lots of inheritance," then a good counter-example to consider is the [C++] standard library itself. -- Herb Sutter

I haven't touch C++ in more then 8 years. I recently had to do fix some C++ code, and although I still can code, I feel like I no more belongs to the camp of C++ programmers. I don't know any libraries, didn't pay attention to the new language features / improvements / best practices.

Qt Creator and Qt seems like a nice toolset for what I need now, since I'm interested mostly in cross platform development.

What would be good resources for someone like me to quickly re-learn C++ and best practices in shortest period of time?

I have been doing mostly java and common lisp in the meantime, with a short strides to C, flex, Scala and Haskell.

Read :

Those are references books on C++ that resume all the modern effective pratices, philosophies and knowledge on C++ (without going into Meta-Programmation stuff).

Then if you want to go farther, read :

About libraries: first learn about the STL and learn to use Boost as a "standard" STL extension.

What is good book for industry level C++ programming? I am not looking for a beginners C++ book that talks about datatypes and control structures. I am looking for a more advanced book. For example, how to build system applications using C++. Any kind of guidance will be very helpful.

If you're looking for books on refining your craft in C++ as a language, you don't get much better than Scott Meyers' Effective C++ and More Effective C++ and Herb Sutter's Exceptional C++, More Exceptional C++ and Exceptional C++ Style. All are packed with invaluable information on bringing your facility with the language from the intermediate to the advanced level.

System-level programming is specific to operating system, so the books diverge based on your platform. Ones I've found very helpful (albeit not C++ specific) are: Windows System Programming, by Johnson M. Hart, Advanced Windows Debugging, by Mario Hewardt and Daniel Pravat, and Linux System Programming, by Robert Love.

All of these books (as well as Peter Alexander's excellent suggestion of Modern C++ Design) are available on O'Reilly's Safari service, which is a pretty cost-effective way of doing a lot of technical reading on the cheap and well worth checking out if you're considering going on a studying binge.

Lakos' Large Scale C++ Software Design is quite a good intermediate-advanced level book about C++ software architecture. It's a little out of date - predating widespread use of templates for example - but it is quite a good book on the subject.

Lakos worked for Mentor Graphics in the 1980s when first generation workstations were the technology du jour. This was an era when the difference in performance and memory footprint between C and C++ apps was regarded as significant. This 'old school' approach discusses efficient C++ systems architecture in some depth, which is a bit of a unique selling point for this book.

These are the best two books I have seen and read

Advanced C++ Programing Styles and Idioms

C++ Common Knowledge

Modern C++ Design by Andrei Alexandrescu is probably the most advanced C++ book out there. It's more about very advanced design patterns rather than building software.

Is there any website where people share and discuss good examples of object-oriented design?

Ideally such website should be populated with posts of the following structure:

  • Concise description of the problem, including definitions, links, etc.
  • Several attempts of OO design, diagrams, pseudocode listings (voted up/down by users)
    • Comments (also voted by users)

Currently I'm looking for a source of inspiration.


Object Oriented Software Construction - Betrand Mayer

He's the man that originated the Eiffel language, the most complete analysis of OO software construction I've read.

Well I can't point you to web sites, but I can refer you to some great books :

Of course, those are C++ books, but a lot of concepts in them applies to much more than just C++

I am pretty proficient with C, and freeing memory in C is a must.

However, I'm starting my first C++ project, and I've heard some things about how you don't need to free memory, by using shared pointers and other things.

Where should I read about this? Is this a valuable replacement for proper delete C++ functionality? How does it work?


I'm confused, some people are saying that I should allocate using new and use smart pointers for the deallocation process.

Other people are saying that I shouldn't allocate dynamic memory in the first place.

Others are saying that if I use new I also have to use delete just like C.

So which method is considered more standard and more-often used?

Where should I read about this?

Herb Sutter's Exceptional C++ and Scott Meyers's More Effective C++ are both excellent books that cover the subject in detail.

There is also a lot of discussion on the web (Google or StackOverflow searches for "RAII" or "smart pointer" will no doubt yield many good results).

Is this a valuable replacement for proper delete C++ functionality?

Absolutely. The ability not to worry about cleaning up resources, especially when an exception is thrown, is one of the most valuable aspects of using RAII and smart pointers.

I am a vc++ developer but I spend most of my time learning c++.What are all the things I should know as a vc developer.

I don't understand why people here post things about WinAPI, .NET, MFC and ATL.

You really must know the language. Another benefit would be the cross platform libraries. C++ is not about GUI or Win32 programming. You can write Multi-Platform application with libraries like boost, QT, wxWidgets (may be some XML parser libs).

Visual C++ is a great IDE to develop C++ application and Microsoft is trying hard to make Visual C++ more standard conform. Learning standard language without dialects (MS dialect as well) will give you an advantage of Rapid Development Environment combined with multi-platform portability. There are many abstraction libraries out there, which work equally on Windows, Linux, Unix or Mac OS. Debugger is a great app in VC++ but not the first thing to start with. Try to write unit tests for your application. They will ensure on next modifications that you did not broke other part of tested (or may be debugged:) code.

Do not try to learn MFC or ATL from scratch, try to understand STL. MFC is old, and new version are more or less wrapper around ATL. ATL is some strange lib, which tries to marry STL-idioms (and sometimes STL itself) and WinAPI. But using ATL concepts without knowing what is behind, will make you unproductive as well. Some ATL idioms are very questionable and might be replaced by some better from boost or libs alike.

The most important things to learn are the language philosophy and concepts. I suggest you to dive into the language and read some serious books:

When here you will be a very advanced C++ developer Next books will make guru out of you:

Remember one important rule: If you have a question, try to find an answer to it in ISO C++ Standard (i.e. Standard document) first. Doing so you will come along many other similar things, which will make you think about the language design.

Hope that book list helps you. Concepts from these books you will see in all well designed modern C++ frameworks.

With Kind Regards,

I am a fairly capable Ruby scripter/programmer, but have been feeling pressure to branch out into C++. I haven't been able to find any sites along the lines of "C++ for Ruby Programmers". This site exists for Python (which is quite similar, I know). Does anyone know of a guide that can help me translate my Ruby 'thoughts' into C++?

If you want to learn C++, start here. Once you have learned the fundamentals, you should also look into these: Effective C++, More Effective C++, Effective STL, and Exceptional C++

This is a "best design" question. I know there is many ways to do that. The question is, which is favourable for which reasons.

Generally speaking: I have a bunch of classes that contain data in different types. Each class is a little bit different from the others. At some point I might want to output the data contained in these classes, each class instance at a different point in time. I see two ways of implementing this:

a) write a "output()" method of some sort for each of the classes. When I wnat to output, I must rely on this method to exist.

b) write a class "OutputClasses" which has a method "output()" which handles the output differently for each class

Which one would be the "standard" or expected way? One of the above or something else?

A recommended way is to have:

ostream& YourClass::Output(ostream& os) const;

member function in each class as well as "standalone" overloaded << operator to call it:

ostream& operator<<(ostream& os, const YourClass&c)
    return c.Output(os);

Source: "Exceptional C++" by Herb Sutter, Item 20. Class Mechanics

Sutter’s Mill

I have a huge C++ solution.

When I change one class and compile In some cases compilation (and linkage) takes little time (less than a second) But in some cases it takes ages (more that 30 seconds)

I do not understand why this happens. The huge difference in performance suggests that something can be done in order to maximize the number of times the compiler is fast.

Any ideas?

Say you have a class A and you add a new data member to it in the header file. Then A has to be recompiled. If B contains A as a member then B has to be recompiled as well. If C has a member B then C also has to be recompiled and so on. A change in A can have a domino effect. A seemingly tiny change (adding a new data member to a class) can result in recompiling the entire project.

On the other hand, if you make substantial changes to implementation of a member function of A in the implementation source file (*.cpp) then, chances are, only A has to be recompiled but nothing else. This is likely to be very fast.

If you wish to understand what triggers the domino effect and what doesn't, I suggest you read Item 31: Minimize compilation dependecies between files in Effective C++ and Items 26-30 on Minimizing Compile-time Dependencies in Exceptional C++.

There is no magic setting of the compiler that will make the compilation fast. Only your understanding and careful coding can help.

So having

struct ResultStructure
    ResultStructure(const ResultStructure& other)
        // copy code in here ? using memcpy ? how???  
    ResultStructure& operator=(const ResultStructure& other)
        if (this != &other) {
            // copy code in here ?
        return *this
    int length;
    char* ptr;

How to implement "copy constructor" and "assignment operator"? (sorry - I am C++ nube)

Update: sbi and others ask - why do I want to manually deal with raw memory? My answer is simple - In a students project I am part of now we use lots of C library's such as for example OpenCV OpenAL and FFmpeg and there are more to come. Currently using C++ we try to create a graph based direct show like cross platform library that would be helpful in live video broadcasting and processing. Our graph elements currently use char* and int pairs for data exchange. To cast data to subscribed elements we use raw memcpy now. I want to go further and make it possible for us to make our graph elements base C++ template. So that one graph element would be capable of of sharing current graph element data with other Graph elements and that data it shares would be a structure that would contain not one char* one int but any number of data fields and nearly any elements inside. So that is why I need to understand how to create a basic C++ structure that implements "copy constructor" and "assignment operator" for me to be capable to use new for us data casting algorithms like

void CastData(T item){
    for(size_t i = 0 ; i < FuncVec.size(); i++){
        T dataCopy = item;

instead of currently used

void CastData(char * data, int length){
    for(size_t i = 0 ; i < FuncVec.size(); i++){
        char* dataCopy = new char[length];
        memcpy(dataCopy, data, length);
        FuncVec[i](dataCopy, length);
                    delete[] dataCopy;

If you use std::string, instead of char*, you would not even need to write operator= or copy-constructor. The compiler generated code would do your job very well.

But as a general solution (for some other scenario), use copy-and-swap idiom:

Exceptional C++ by Herb Sutter has described these in great detail. I would recommend you to read items from this book. For the time being, you can read this article online: