Iain D. Craig
I love virtual machines (VMs) and I have done for a long time.If that makes me "sad" or an "anorak", so be it. I love them because they are so much fun, as well as being so useful. They have an element of original sin (writing assembly programs and being in control of an entire machine), while still being able to claim that one is being a respectable member of the community (being structured, modular, high-level, object-oriented, and so on). They also allow one to design machines of one's own, unencumbered by the restrictions of a starts optimising it for some physical particular processor (at least, until one processor or other). I have been building virtual machines, on and off, since 1980 or there abouts. It has always been something of a hobby for me; it has also turned out to be a technique of great power and applicability. I hope to continue working on them, perhaps on some of the ideas outlined in the last chapter (I certainly want to do some more work with register-based VMs and concur rency). I originally wanted to write the book from a purely semantic viewpoint.
Edit: In response to a comment asking for specificity here is an example. The JVM uses a stack machine rather then a register machine, which was very controversial when Java was first introduced. It turned out that the engineers who designed the JVM had done so intending platform portability, and converting a stack machine back into a register machine was easier and more efficient then overcoming an impedance mismatch where there were too many or too few registers virtual.
Here's another example: for Haskell, the paper to look at is Implementing lazy functional languages on stock hardware: the Spineless Tagless G-machine. This is very different from any other type of VM I know about. And in point of fact GHC (the premier implementation of Haskell) does not run live, but is used as an intermediate step in compilation. Peyton-Jones lists no less then 8 other virtual machines that didn't work. I would like to understand why some VM's succeed where other fail.
I found this book to be helpful. It discusses many of the points you are asking about. (note I'm not in any way affiliated with Amazon, nor am I promoting Amazon; just was the easiest place to link from).